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As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths. The Medieval shopper's experience was very different from that of the contemporary shopper.
Interiors were dark and shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Glazed windows in retail environments, were virtually unknown during the medieval period.
Goods were rarely out on display; instead retailers kept the merchandise at the rear of the store and would only bring out items on request. The service counter was virtually unknown and instead, many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. In Britain, medieval attitudes to retailing and shopping were negative. Retailers were no better than hucksters, because they simply resold goods, by buying cheaper and selling dearer, without adding value of national accounts.
Added to this were concerns about the self-interest of retailers and some of their more unethical practices. Attitudes to spending on luxury goods also attracted criticism, since it involved importing goods which did little to stimulate national accounts, and interfered with the growth of worthy local manufacturers.
The modern phenomenon of shopping for pleasure is closely linked to the emergence of a middle class in the 17th and 18th-century Europe. As standards of living improved in the 17th century, consumers from a broad range of social backgrounds began to purchase goods that were in excess of basic necessities.
An emergent middle class or bourgeosie stimulated demand for luxury goods and began to purchase a wider range of luxury goods and imported goods, including: Indian cotton and calico; silk, tea and porcelain from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World. By the 17th-century, produce markets gradually gave way to shops and shopping centres; which changed the consumer's shopping experience.
Shops started to become important as places for Londoners to meet and socialise and became popular destinations alongside the theatre. Restoration London also saw the growth of luxury buildings as advertisements for social position with speculative architects like Nicholas Barbon and Lionel Cranfield.
Much pamphleteering of the time was devoted to justifying conspicuous consumption and private vice for luxury goods for the greater public good. This then scandalous line of thought caused great controversy with the publication of Bernard Mandeville 's influential work Fable of the Bees in , in which he argued that a country's prosperity ultimately lay in the self-interest of the consumer. These trends gathered momentum in the 18th century, as rising prosperity and social mobility increased the number of people with disposable income for consumption.
Important shifts included the marketing of goods for individuals as opposed to items for the household, and the new status of goods as status symbols , related to changes in fashion and desired for aesthetic appeal, as opposed to just their utility. The pottery inventor and entrepreneur , Josiah Wedgewood , pioneered the use of marketing techniques to influence and manipulate the direction of the prevailing tastes.
As the 18th-century progressed, a wide variety of goods and manufactures were steadily made available for the urban middle and upper classes. This growth in consumption led to the rise of 'shopping' - a proliferation of retail shops selling particular goods and the acceptance of shopping as a cultural activity in its own right. Specific streets and districts became devoted to retail, including the Strand and Piccadilly in London. The rise of window shopping as a recreational activity accompanied the use of glass windows in retail shop-fronts.
By the late eighteenth century, grand shopping arcades began to emerge across Britain, Europe and in the Antipodes in what became known as the "arcade era. Inside the arcade, individual stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies, even when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices.
Designed to attract the genteel middle class, retailers sold luxury goods at relatively high prices. However, prices were never a deterrent, as these new arcades came to be the place to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos of daily street life; a place shoppers could socialise and spend their leisure time.
As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. By the mid nineteenth century, promenading in these arcades became a popular pass-time for the emerging middle classes.
In Europe, the Palais-Royal, which opened in , became one of the earliest examples of the new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. It developed a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving around the salons, cafés, and bookshops, but also became a place frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building.
Although this was condemned by many, he defended his practice in his memoirs, claiming that he:. Retailers designed attractive shop fronts to entice patronage, using bright lights, advertisements and attractively arranged goods.
The goods on offer were in a constant state of change, due to the frenetic change in fashions. A foreign visitor commented that London was "a world of gold and silver plate, then pearls and gems shedding their dazzling lustre, home manufactures of the most exquisite taste, an ocean of rings, watches, chains, bracelets, perfumes, ready-dresses, ribbons, lace, bonnets, and fruits from all the zones of the habitable world".
In the second half of the 19th-century, shops transitioned from 'single-function' shops selling one type of good, to the department store where a large variety of goods were sold.
As economic growth, fueled by the Industrial Revolution at the turn of the 19th-century, steadily expanded, the affluent bourgeois middle-class grew in size and wealth.
This urbanized social group was the catalyst for the emergence of the retail revolution of the period. The term, "department store," originated in America. In 19th century England, these stores were known as emporia or warehouse shops. This pioneering shop was closed down in when the business partnership was dissolved. Department stores were established on a large scale from the s and 50s, in France, the United Kingdom and the US.
French retailer, Le Bon Marche, is an example of a department store that has survived into current times Originally founded in as a lace and haberdashery store, it was revamped mid-century and opened as a department store in Many of the early department stores were more than just a retail emporium; rather they were venues where shoppers could spend their leisure time and be entertained.
Some department stores offered reading rooms, art galleries and concerts. Most department stores had tea-rooms or dining rooms and offered treatment areas where ladies could indulge in a manicure. The fashion show, which originated in the US in around , became a staple feature event for many department stores and celebrity appearances were also used to great effect.
Themed events featured wares from foreign shores, exposing shoppers to the exotic cultures of the Orient and Middle-East. A larger commercial zone can be found in many cities, more formally called a central business district , but more commonly called " downtown " in the United States, or the "high street" in Britain, and souks in Arabicspeaking areas.
Shopping hubs, or shopping centers , are collections of stores; that is a grouping of several businesses in a compact geeographic area. It consists of a collection of retail, entertainment and service stores designed to serve products and services to the surrounding region. Ball In The Hole. Balloon in a Wasteland. Barry Lost His Marbles. Bat and Mouse 2. Battle for the Galaxy. Battle of the Bob.
Battle of the Giants: Beanstalk Race iFrame test. Bear in Super Action Adventure. Bear in Super Action Adventure 2. Ben 10 Ultramix Unleashed.
Best Friends Forever 3. Bieber Tower of Hair Defense. Billy and the Shootgun. Billy and the Shotgun 2. Blob Bob Lost Levels.
Blood Car Delux. Bloons Players Pack 1. Bloons Players Pack 2. Bloons Players Pack 3. Bloons Players Pack 4. Bloons Players Pack 5. Bloons Tower Defense 2.
Bloons Tower Defense 3. Bloons Tower Defense 4. Bob the Guard of Earth. Bobby Nutcase Moto Jumping. Bowel Physics Tower Defense. Bowja the Ninja 2. Boxhead - The Zombie Wars. Break in the Road. Brink of Alienation III. Bubble Master High Scores. Bubble Tanks Tower Defense. Build a Lot 4: Build a Robot 2.
Build A Robot 3. Bunny Invasion Easter Special. Bush on the Rocks. Busy Beas Halftime Hustle. Cake Mania 2 the Max. Call Me Young Kaleido. Can I Eat This? Capri Sun Promo Game. Car Eats Car 3: Carious Weltling 2 Regurgitated. Carmela Sutera Wedding Dress Up. Carrie the Caregiver 2: Castle Crashing the Beard. Cat with Bow Golf. Catch Em If You Can. Catch the Rats 2. Catch the Star 2.
Champions of Chaos 2. Revenge of the Yolk. City of Ember Pipeworks. Clash of the Dragons. Conor Martin's RV Mayhem. Cradle of Rome II. Crash n Smash Derby. Crazy Go Nuts 2. Crazy Kimono Doll Assault. Crow in Hell 3. Crush the Castle 2. Crush the Castle Players Pack. Curse of the Amsterdam Diamond. Curse of the Opera. Cursed Treasure Level Pack. Cut the Cord - Piggy Bank. Cut the Rope Time Travel. Pirates of the Caribbean.
Dangerous Flashy Lights Game. Dave Fearless is Stuntdriver. Dave Fearless is Stuntdriver 2. Day D Tower Rush. Days 2 Die 2. Dead Frontier Night 3. Death Arena Reality Show. Death Unicorn of Death. Deaths Embrace Escape 2. Deep Blue Sea II. Defend the Village 2. Defend Your Nuts 2. Defenders of the Crown. Denim Rocks Dress Up. Derecho the Doom Bringer. Dibs Adventure to Mount Wafers. Digi Ninja Level 1. Diner Dash - Flo on the Go. Diner Town Detective Agency.
Disaster Will Strike 2. Don't Save the Princess. Don't Shoot The Puppy. Don't Taze Me Bro! Don't Think To enTer. Don't Touch the Hooks. Don't Touch the Lava. Don't Whack Your Teacher.
Dont Drop The Puppy. Dr Lynch Grave Secrets. Drag Race Demon 2. Dragon Fist 3 - Age of the Warrior. Dress Me Up Clockwork Couture. Dress Paris in Jail. Dudes in a Room. Dum Dum and the Iron Golem. Earn to Die Earn to Die 2: Earn to Die Super Wheel. Echoes of the Past. Empress of the Deep.
Epic Boss Fighter 2. Escape Camp Crystal Lake. Escape from Fairy World. Escape from Frankensteins Castle. Escape From Ice Mountain.
Escape from Lost Island. Escape From The Campground. Escape from the Catacombs. Escape From The Mall. Escape From the Oval Office. Escape from Thunder Island. Escape From Wherever You Are. Escape from Wonderland Carnival. Escape the Bookstore 2. Escape the Chem Lab. Escape the Coffee House. Escape the Convenience Store. Escape the Crashing Plane. Escape the Cursed Island. Escape the Dark Office. Escape the Ecru Room. Escape the Emerald Star. Escape the Health Center. Escape the Ladies Room.
Escape the Lion Cage. Escape the Lost Kingdom. Escape the Museum 2. Escape the Office Escape the Pear Room.
Escape the Phone Booth. Escape the Red Giant. Escape the Room 2. Escape the Room 3. Escape the Ship of Doom. Escape the Speeding Car. Escape the Toy Factory. Escape the Turquoise Room. Escape the Very Bad Planet. Escape the Working Room. Fancy Pants Adventure 2.
Fancy Pants Adventure Sneak Peek. Fancy Pants Adventures World 3. Fantasy Monster Rescue Game. Farm Frenzy Pizza Party. Feed Our Doughnut Overlords. The Curse of Oz. Find Your Way Out.
Finn and Jake's Epic Quest. Fire in the Hole 2. Fireboy and Watergirl 2. Fireboy and Watergirl 3. Fix It Up 2. Fix It Up Kate 80s. Flash Element TD 2. Flight For the Crown.
Fly Me To The Moon. Food for Thought Word Puzzle. Footsteps of Simeon Meade. Fox X the Dawning. Frat Boy Beer Pong. Fratboy Blind Date Horror. Friendly Fire Blood and Gore. Fun in the Sun. Furfur and Nublo 2. Game, Game, Game and again Game.
Gavin the Golf Pro Goblin. Gavin the Golf Pro Goblin 2. George Lopez Lawn Art Bowling. Get Off My Lawn. Gibbets 2 Level Pack. Girl Dress Up Makeover. Globs Path of the Guru. Gone to the Dogs. Governor of Poker 2. Governor of Poker DL. Grand Prix Go 2. Graveyard of Drunken Souls. Gravity Boy Level Pack. We are open seven days a week. Our dress collection for showcases trends fresh off the designer's runway. Each designer has a unique spin on classic and modern dress styles, so every shopper can find the perfect ensemble for any formal event.
We offer free ground shipping in the contiguous US on all regular priced dresses. We offer a 5 day return policy on eligible items. Items marked final sale are not returnable. We offer 2 options: Free ground to contiguous U. Please see our shipping policy for full details. Dress Return and Exchange Policy Shopping online with Prom Dress Shop is stress-free, especially with our return policy and knowledgeable customer service department.
Season Trends to Check Out: Crop Top Dresses with mermaid or jersey style skirts Romantic floral prints See Sherri Hill's amazing collection of printed styles!
At Modern Vintage Boutique, we carry all of the trendiest styles. Shop our online boutique to find women's clothing, accessories, and more! But that doesn’t mean you can’t add to your dress with accessories, shoes, and stylish outerwear! Our online boutique can provide you with everything you need to complete the perfect outfit. Start shopping these trendy dresses to fill up your closet! Be sure to sign-up for our newsletter to get updates and news about our online boutique. Shy away from the sunshine in a counter-intuitive long sleeve dress to cover the arms, or go for maxi dresses for a slimming, goddess-like look. Glam up for hot .